Übersetzung im Kontext von „Batting“ in Englisch-Deutsch von Reverso Context: batting average. Übersetzung für 'batting' im kostenlosen Englisch-Deutsch Wörterbuch und viele weitere Deutsch-Übersetzungen. Viele übersetzte Beispielsätze mit "quilt batting" – Deutsch-Englisch Wörterbuch und Suchmaschine für Millionen von Deutsch-Übersetzungen.
Typically, horizontal bat shots have a greater probability of failing to make contact with the ball than vertical bat shots and therefore are restricted to deliveries that are not threatening to hit the stumps, either by dint of being too wide or too short.
A cut is a cross-batted shot played at a short-pitched ball, placing it wide on the off side. A square cut is a shot hit into the off side at near to 90 degrees from the wicket towards point.
The cut shot is typically played off the back foot but is also sometimes played off the front foot against slower bowling. The cut should be played with the face of the bat rolling over the ball to face the ground thus pushing the ball downwards.
A mistimed cut with an open-faced bat with the face of the bat facing the bowler will generally lead to the ball rising in the air, giving a chance for the batsman to be caught.
Although confusingly named a drive, the square drive is actually a horizontal bat shot, with identical arm mechanics to that of the square cut.
The difference between the cut and the square drive is the height of the ball at contact: A pull is a cross-batted shot played to a ball bouncing around waist height by swinging the bat in a horizontal arc in front of the body, pulling it around to the leg side towards mid-wicket or square leg.
The term hook shot is used when the shot is played against a ball bouncing at or above chest high to the batsman, the batsman thus "hooking" the ball around behind square leg, either along the ground or in the air.
Pull and hook shots can be played off the front or back foot, with the back foot being more typical. A sweep is a cross-batted front foot shot played to a low bouncing ball, usually from a slow bowler , by kneeling on one knee, bringing the head down in line with the ball and swinging the bat around in a horizontal arc near the pitch as the ball arrives, sweeping it around to the leg side, typically towards square leg or fine leg.
A paddle sweep shot is a sweep shot in which the ball is deflected towards fine leg with a stationary or near-stationary bat extended horizontally towards the bowler, whereas the hard sweep shot is played towards square leg with the bat swung firmly in a horizontal arc.
Typically the sweep shot will be played to a legside delivery, but it is also possible for a batsman to sweep the ball to the leg side from outside off stump.
Attempting to sweep a full straight delivery on the stumps is generally not recommended because of the risk of lbw. Since a batsman is free to play any shot to any type of delivery as he wishes, the above list is by no means a complete list of the strokes that batsmen choose to play.
Many unorthodox, typically high-risk, shots have been used throughout the history of the game. The advent of limited overs cricket has seen the increased use of unorthodox shots to hit the ball into gaps where there are no fielders placed.
A few unorthodox shots have gained enough popularity or notoriety to have been given their own names and entered common usage. A reverse sweep is a cross-batted sweep shot played in the opposite direction to the standard sweep, thus instead of sweeping the ball to the leg side, it is swept to the off side, towards a backward point or third man.
The batsman may also swap his hands on the bat handle to make the stroke easier to execute. The batsman may also bring his back foot to the front, therefore, making it more like a traditional sweep.
The advantage of a reverse sweep is that it effectively reverses the fielding positions and thus is very difficult to set a field to.
It is also a risky shot for the batsman as it increases the chance of lbw and also is quite easy to top edge to a fielder. Cricket coach Bob Woolmer has been credited with popularising the stroke.
With England on course for victory, Gatting attempted a reverse sweep off the first delivery bowled by Border, top-edged the ball and was caught by wicketkeeper Greg Dyer.
England subsequently lost momentum and eventually lost the match. Because of the unorthodox nature of hand and body position, it is often difficult to get a lot of power behind a reverse sweep; in many situations, the intention is to glance or cut the ball to the back leg area.
However, on rare occasions, players have been able to execute reverse sweeps for a six. Kevin Pietersen , who pioneered switch-hitting, is adept at this, but one could argue [ original research?
A slog is a powerful pull shot played over mid-wicket, usually, hit in the air in an attempt to score a six. A shot would be described as a slog when it is typically played at a delivery that would not ordinarily be pulled.
A slog can also be described as hitting the ball to " cow corner ". This phrase is designed to imply that the batsman is unsophisticated in his strokeplay and technique by suggesting he would be more at home playing on more rudimentary cricket fields in which there may be cows grazing along the boundary edge.
A slog sweep is a slog played from the kneeling position used to sweep. Slog sweeps are usually directed over square-leg rather than to mid-wicket.
It is almost exclusively used against reasonably full-pitched balls from slow bowlers, as only then does the batsman have time to sight the length and adopt the kneeling position required for the slog sweep.
The front leg of the shot is usually placed wider outside leg stump to allow for a full swing of the bat.
A upper cut is a shot played towards third man, usually hit when the ball is pitched outside the off stump with an extra bounce.
It is a dangerous shot which can edge the batsman to keeper or slips if not executed correctly. The shot is widely used in modern cricket.
The shot is advantageous in fast bouncy tracks and is seen commonly in Twenty20 cricket. A switch hit is a shot where a batsman changes his handedness and posture to adopt a stance the mirror image of his traditional handedness while the bowler is running into a bowl.
As a fielding team cannot maneuver fielders while the bowler is in his run-up, the fielding side is effectively wrong-footed with the fielders out of position.
It was subsequently used in the New Zealand series in England in when Pietersen performed the shot twice in the same over against Scott Styris on his way to making an unbeaten century.
He is also possible to bat right-handed due to his experience in doing so in youth cricket. The legality of the switch hit was questioned when first introduced but cleared by the International Cricket Council as legal.
The shot is risky because a batsman is less proficient in the other handedness and is more likely to make a mistake in the execution of his shot.
A scoop shot also known as a ramp shot, paddle scoop , Marillier shot or Dilscoop has been used by a number of first-class batsmen, the first being Dougie Marillier.
It is played to short-pitched straight balls that would traditionally be defended or, more aggressively, pulled to the leg side.
To play a scoop shot, the batsman is on the front foot and aims to get beneath the bounce of the ball and hit it directly behind the stumps, up and over the wicket-keeper.
This shot, though risky in the execution, has the advantage of being aimed at a section of the field where a fielder is rarely placed — particularly in Twenty20 and One Day International cricket where the number of outfielders is limited.
The scoop shot is a risky shot to play as the improper execution of this shot may lead to a catch being offered. The helicopter shot in cricket is the act of flicking the bat toward the leg side when facing a yorker or a fuller-length delivery and finishing the stroke with a flourish by twisting the bat in an overhead circle.
This shot, which requires excellent timing and wrist-work, is considered a new innovation in cricket and is seen as an unconventional form of batsmanship.
Traditionally, faster bowlers have used yorker-length deliveries toward the end of limited-overs matches because it is difficult to hit such balls to the boundary.
The helicopter shot is one answer to this tactic. But the shot was popularised by MS Dhoni. The fundamental aim of each batsman is to find a means of safely scoring runs against each bowler he faces.
The strategy he will decide on will incorporate a number of preconceived attacking responses to the various deliveries he may anticipate receiving, designed specifically to score runs with minimal risk of being dismissed.
The success of this strategy will be dependent upon both the accuracy of its conception and the technical ability with which it is carried out.
A key aspect of the strategy of batting is the trade-off between the level of aggression trying to score and the risk involved of being dismissed.
An optimal batting strategy balances several considerations: As such, strategies vary between the three forms of international cricket, T20 , Test cricket and One Day International cricket.
As One Day International matches have a limited set of overs , batsmen try to score quickly. Doing so, batsmen should aim for a higher run rate than the one which would maximize their expected personal score.
It is optimal for batsmen to take the risk of being dismissed and being replaced by another teammate. This higher risk strategy makes the best of the limited number of overs.
Most batsmen manage to score at an average of four runs an over i. The optimal level of risk should vary depending on different factors.
It should be higher when the pitch provides good conditions for batting, making it easier to score without great risk of being dismissed.
It should increase towards the end of the innings when the number of overs left is small there is not much to lose in taking the risk of ending all out.
Research has shown that teams broadly follow these principles. A noticeable exception is when batsmen face the possibility to score a personal milestone e.
When a team goes out to bat, the best players bat first. The first three batsmen number 1, 2, 3 are known as the top order ; the next four numbers 4, 5, 6 and possibly 7 form the middle order , and the last four numbers 8, 9, 10 and 11 are the lower order or tail.
The specialist batsmen of a team usually bat near the top of the order, so as to score more runs. The openers or opening batsmen are the first two batsmen to take the crease.
They are not necessarily the best batsmen, but are expected to negotiate the new ball and not lose wickets until the shine on the ball is considerably diminished a hard and shiny ball bounces and swings more and is more difficult for the batsmen to face.
In addition, they are supposed to play quick innings more runs in fewer balls , reflecting the fact that the fielding side is subject to restrictions on the placement of fielders in the first 15 overs which makes it easier to score runs.
In a recent amendment  to the rules of ODI cricket, fielding captains are given mandatory fielding restrictions for the first 10 overs and then two chunks of 5 overs each, also known as power-play overs, which they may impose at any stage of their choice within the stipulated 50 overs.
Following the openers is the No. His job is to take over from the openers and typically play a careful and prolonged inning, effectively tying up one end of the batting.
This brings in some stability in the batting, as new batsmen find it difficult to settle down and it helps to have a settled batsman at the other end.
The best batsman of the team is usually put at number 3 or 4, to protect him from the difficulties of batting against the best bowlers on a fresh pitch and to allow him to play long innings.
This is because the fielding restrictions on the opposition are lifted in the middle overs so that the percentage of boundaries scored decreases.
Middle-order batsmen are often chosen for the ability to run hard and fast between the wickets to maximize the number of runs not scored from boundaries and for their endurance and patience.
The middle order typically sets the stage for an aggressive assault on the bowling in the final 10 overs of the match. To achieve this assault, two things are necessary — a number of hard-hitting batsmen yet to bat or not out and a number of wickets in hand since aggression means a greater likelihood of losing wickets.
The last 10 overs of a one-day cricket match innings is often the most exciting part of the innings, because of a large number of boundaries scored and wickets taken.
During the last ten overs of an ODI , batsmen often use shots that are riskier than shots played at the beginning of the innings.
Examples of risky shots include the reverse sweep and the paddle-scoop. These shots are used to achieve a boundary which would not be possible when playing a safer, more orthodox shot.
Finally, the lower order consists of the bowlers of the team, who are not known for their batting prowess and so bat as low down the order as possible.
However, there are no real restrictions to the batting positions. Captains have been known to experiment with the batting line-up to gain specific advantages.
For example, a lower-order batsman is sometimes sent in at number 3 with instructions to pinch-hit playing aggressively in an attempt to score more runs in fewer balls — a term borrowed from baseball to score quick runs and shield better players, as his wicket as a less accomplished lower-order batsman is less valuable anyway.
Behind the catcher stands the home plate umpire. The catcher also usually signals the desired location of the ball within the strike zone and "sets up" behind the plate or holds his glove up in the desired location as a target.
Each pitch begins a new play , which might consist of nothing more than the pitch itself. Each half-inning, the goal of the defending team is to get three members of the other team out.
A player who is out must leave the field and wait for his next turn at bat. There are many ways to get batters and baserunners out; some of the most common are catching a batted ball in the air , tag outs , force outs , and strikeouts.
After the fielding team has put out three players from the opposing team, that half of the inning is over and the team in the field and the team at bat switch places; there is no upper limit to the number that may bat in rotation before three outs are recorded.
Going through the entire order in an inning is referred to as "batting around" and it is indicative of a high-scoring inning. A complete inning consists of each opposing side having a turn three outs on offense.
The goal of the team at bat is to score more runs than the opposition; a player may do so by batting, then becoming a baserunner , touching all the bases in order via one or more plays , and finally touching home plate.
A player may also become a baserunner by being inserted as a pinch-runner. To that end, the goal of each batter is to enable baserunners to score or to become a baserunner himself.
The batter attempts to hit the ball into fair territory — between the baselines — in such a way that the defending players cannot get them or the baserunners out.
In general, the pitcher attempts to prevent this by pitching the ball in such a way that the batter cannot hit it cleanly or, ideally, at all.
A baserunner who has successfully touched home plate without being retired called out after touching all previous bases in order scores a run.
In an enclosed field, a fair ball hit over the fence on the fly is an automatic home run , which entitles the batter and all runners to touch all the bases and score.
On a field with foul poles, a ball that hits a pole is also a home run. The squad in the field is the defensive team; they attempt to prevent the baserunners from scoring.
There are nine defensive positions, but only two have a mandatory location pitcher and catcher. The locations of the other seven fielders is not specified by the rules, except that at the moment the pitch is delivered, they must be positioned in fair territory and not in the space between the pitcher and the catcher.
These fielders often shift their positioning in response to specific batters or game situations, and they may exchange positions with one another at any time.
The nine positions most commonly used with the number scorekeepers use are: Note that, in rare cases, teams may use dramatically differing schemes, such as switching an outfielder for an infielder.
The numbering convention was established by Henry Chadwick. The reason the shortstop seems out of order has to do with the way fielders positioned themselves in the early years of the game.
Each position is weighted on the defensive spectrum in terms of difficulty. The most difficult position is catcher, while the least difficult is first base.
Designated hitter, while on the scale, is not part of the defense at all. Pitchers, while part of the active defense, are so specialized in their role that they usually make only routine plays.
The battery is composed of the pitcher , who stands on the rubber of the mound, which is also known as the pitching plate, and the catcher , who squats behind home plate.
These are the two fielders who always deal directly with the batter on every pitch, hence the term "battery", coined by Henry Chadwick and later reinforced by the implied comparison to artillery fire.
Pitchers also play defense by fielding batted balls, covering bases for a potential tag out or force out on an approaching runner , or backing up throws.
Together with the pitcher and coaches, the catcher plots game strategy by suggesting different pitches and by shifting the starting positions of the other fielders.
Catchers are also responsible for defense in the area near home plate such as dropped third strikes and wild pitches or baserunning plays, most commonly when an opposing player attempts to steal a base.
Due to the exceptional difficulty of the position, catchers are universally valued for their defensive prowess as opposed to their ability to hit.
The four infielders are the first baseman , second baseman , shortstop , and third baseman. Originally the first, second and third basemen played very near their respective bases, and the shortstop generally played "in" hence the term , covering the area between second, third, and the pitchers box, or wherever the game situation required.
When an infielder picks up a ball from the ground hit by the batter , he must throw it to the first baseman who must catch the ball and maintain contact with the base before the batter gets to it for the batter to be out.
The need to do this quickly often requires the first baseman to stretch one of his legs to touch first base while catching the ball simultaneously.
The first baseman must be able to catch the ball very well and usually wears a specially designed mitt. The first baseman fields balls hit near first base.
The first baseman also has to receive throws from the pitcher in order to tag runners out who have reached base safely.
The position is less physically challenging than the other positions, but there is still a lot of skill involved.
Older players who can no longer fulfill the demands of their original positions also often become first basemen. The second baseman covers the area to the first-base side of second base and provides backup for the first baseman in bunt situations.
He also is a cut-off for the outfield. The shortstop fills the critical gap between second and third bases — where right-handed batters generally hit ground balls — and also covers second or third base and the near part of left field.
This player is also a cut-off for the outfield. Quick reaction time is also important for third basemen, as they tend to see more sharply-hit balls than do the other infielders, thus the nickname for third base as the "hot corner".
The right fielder generally has the strongest arm of all the outfielders due to the need to make throws on runners attempting to take third base.
The center fielder has more territory to cover than the corner outfielders , so this player must be quick and agile with a strong arm to throw balls in to the infield ; as with the shortstop , teams tend to emphasize defense at this position.
Also, the center fielder is considered the outfield leader, and left- and right-fielders often cede to his direction when fielding fly balls. Of all outfielders, the left fielder often has the weakest arm, as they generally do not need to throw the ball as far in order to prevent the advance of any baserunners.
The left fielder still requires good fielding and catching skills, and tends to receive more balls than the right fielder due to the fact that right-handed hitters, who are much more common, tend to "pull" the ball into left field.
Each outfielder runs to "back up" a nearby outfielder who attempts to field a ball hit near both their positions. Outfielders also run to back up infielders on batted balls and thrown balls, including pick-off attempts from the pitcher or from the catcher.
Effective pitching is critical to a baseball team, as pitching is the key for the defensive team to retire batters and to prevent runners from getting on base.
A full game usually involves over one hundred pitches thrown by each team. However, most pitchers begin to tire before they reach this point.
In previous eras, pitchers would often throw up to four complete games all nine innings in a week. With new advances in medical research and thus a better understanding of how the human body functions and tires out, starting pitchers tend more often to throw fractions of a game typically six or seven innings, depending on their performance about every five days though a few complete games do still occur each year.
Multiple pitchers are often needed in a single game, including the starting pitcher and relief pitcher s. Pitchers are substituted for one another like any other player see above , and the rules do not limit the number of pitchers that can be used in a game; the only limiting factor is the size of the squad, naturally.
In general, starting pitchers are not used in relief situations except sometimes during the post-season when every game is vital.
If a game runs into many extra innings, a team may well empty its bullpen. If it then becomes necessary to use a "position player" as a pitcher, major league teams generally have certain players designated as emergency relief pitchers, to avoid the embarrassment of using a less skillful player.
In the ALCS , all four of the Chicago White Sox victories were complete games by the starters, a highly noteworthy event in the modern game.
While delivering the ball, the pitcher has a great arsenal at his disposal in the variation of location, velocity, movement, and arm location see types of pitches.
Most pitchers attempt to master two or three types of pitches; some pitchers throw up to 6 types of pitches with varying degrees of control.
Pitchers with a submarine delivery are often very difficult to hit because of the angle and movement of the ball once released.
Walter Johnson , who threw one of the fastest fastballs in the history of the game, threw sidearm though not submarine rather than a normal overhand.
True underhanded pitching is permitted in Major League Baseball. However, it is difficult to generate enough velocity and movement with the underhand motion.
Among modern Major League pitchers, Chad Bradford had the closest to an underhand delivery, with his knuckles sometimes scraping the ground.
However, he is still usually considered a "submarine" pitcher. Thus, the players on the field move around as needed to defend against scoring a run.
Many variations of this are possible, as location depends upon the situation. Circumstances such as the number of outs, the count balls and strikes on the batter, the number and speed of runners, the ability of the fielders, the ability of the pitcher, the type of pitch thrown, the tendencies of the hitter, and the inning cause the fielders to move to more strategic locations on the field.
Common defensive strategies include: The ultimate goal of the team at bat is to score runs. Each team sets its batting lineup at the beginning of the game.
Changes to the lineup are tightly limited by the rules of baseball and must be communicated to the umpires, who have the substitutions announced for the opposing team and fans.
Batters can advance to first base safely in one of seven methods: When the batter hits a fair ball, he must run to first base, and may continue or stop at any base unless he is put out.
A successful hit occurs when the batter reaches a base: Once a runner is held to a base, he may attempt to advance at any time, but is not required to do so unless the batter or another runner displaces him called a force play.
A batter always drops his bat when running the bases; otherwise, the bat would slow him down and could give rise to a call of interference if it were to contact the ball or a fielder.
However, if a batter hits the ball, and the batter or the dropped bat touches the ball, it is considered a dead ball. Depending on the way the ball comes off the bat, the play has different names.
A batted ball is called a fly ball if it is hit in the air in an upward arc, such that a fielder might be able to catch it before it hits the ground.
A batted ball is called a ground ball if it hits the ground within the infield before it can be caught, often due to being hit in a downward trajectory.
Several different names are used to describe fly balls, depending on their trajectory. A ball hit high in the air and seemingly almost straight up is called a "pop-up".
A ball hit forcefully in a fast-moving and seemingly almost straight-line trajectory is called a line drive.
A "shallow" fly ball, hit with just enough force to possibly land between the infielders and the outfielders, is often call a "blooper".
A "deep" fly ball is hit with enough force to approach and possibly clear the outfield fence. When a ball is hit outside the foul lines, it is a foul ball , requiring the batter and all runners to return to their respective bases, whether it is caught or not.
Additionally, if a ground ball or a bunted ball lands in foul territory and the ball rolls back into bounds before reaching either first or third bases without being touched by either a fielder or a runner, then said ball is considered fair.
Once the batter and any existing runners have all stopped at a base or been put out, the ball is returned to the pitcher, and the next batter comes to the plate.
When a runner reaches home plate, he scores a run and is no longer a base runner. He must leave the playing area until his spot in the order comes up again.
A runner may only circle the bases once per plate appearance and thus can score no more than a single run. In the American, Pacific, and both Cuban leagues, there is a tenth player, a designated hitter, who bats for the pitcher.
With each pitch, the batter must decide whether to swing the bat at the ball in an attempt to hit it. In addition to swinging at the ball, a batter who wishes to put the ball in play may hold his bat over home plate and attempt to tap a pitch lightly; this is called a bunt.
Good bunting technique has been described as "catching the ball with the bat. On any pitch, if the batter swings at the ball and misses, he is charged with a strike.
If the batter does not swing, the home plate umpire judges whether the ball passed through the strike zone. If the ball, or any part of it, passed through the zone, it is ruled a strike; otherwise, it is called a ball.
The number of balls and strikes thrown to the current batter is known as the count ; the count is always given balls first except in Japan, where it is reversed , then strikes such as or "three and two", also known as a "full count", which would be 3 balls and 2 strikes.
If the batter swings and makes contact with the ball, but does not put it in play in fair territory—a foul ball —he is charged with an additional strike, except when there are already two strikes.
Thus, a foul ball with two strikes leaves the count unchanged. However, a noted exception to this rule is that a ball bunted foul with two strikes is a strikeout.
If a pitch is batted foul or fair and a member of the defensive team is able to catch it, before the ball strikes the ground, the batter is declared out.
If a ball ruled as a foul tip is caught, with two strikes in the count, it is considered a counted third strike and an out; if not initially caught by the catcher, it remains a foul ball with two strikes.
When three strikes occur on a batter, it is a strikeout and the batter is automatically out unless the pitch is not caught by the catcher or if the pitch bounces before it is caught.
It is then ruled an uncaught third strike , an exception to the third strike rule: If the catcher drops the third strike, the batter is permitted to attempt to advance to first base if there are two outs in the inning or if it is unoccupied.
In this case, the batter is not out although the pitcher is awarded a strikeout. The catcher can try to get the batter out by tagging him with the ball or throwing the ball to first base to put him out.
On the fourth ball , it is called a walk, and the batter becomes a runner, and is entitled to advance to first base without risk of being put out, called a base on balls or a walk abbreviated BB.
In practice, neither exception is ever called unless the batter obviously tries to get hit by the pitch; even standing still in the box will virtually always be overlooked, and the batter awarded first.
In addition, if the batter swings at a pitch that hits him, it counts as a strike. Once a batter becomes a runner and reaches first base safely, he is said to be "on" that base until he attempts to advance to the next base, until he is put out, or until the half-inning ends.
In order to be safe a runner must beat the ball to the bag. When two or more runners are on the basepaths, the runner farther along is called a lead runner or a preceding runner ; any other runner is called a trailing runner or a following runner.
Runners on second or third base are considered to be in scoring position since ordinary hits, even singles, will often allow them to score. A runner legally touching a base is " safe " — in most situations he may not be put out.
Runners may attempt to advance from base to base at any time except when the ball is dead. A runner that must attempt to advance is forced , when all previous bases are occupied and a batted ball that touches the ground is a fair ball.
The runner forced to advance toward the next base is considered "forced out" if a fielder holding the baseball touches the intended base before the baserunner arrives.
When a batted ball is hit in the air, i. The common name for this requirement is tagging up. If the runner retouches the origin base at any time after the fly ball is first touched by a fielder, he may attempt to advance to the next base or bases at his own risk.
The penalty for failing to retouch if the defensive team notices this is that the advancing runner can be put out on a live appeal in which the defensive team player with the ball touches the base from which that runner departed prematurely.
If a runner tagged up and tries to run to the next base in sequence, they are deemed out if tagged by an infielder at any point before reaching the base or the ball arrives at the base ahead of the runner.
However, if the runner is not forced to run to the next base in sequence, they are not deemed out until they are tagged. This often leads to a runner being trapped between two or more infielders trying to tag them before reaching any base: Only one runner may occupy a base at a time; if two runners are touching a base at once, the trailing runner is in jeopardy and will be out if tagged.
However, if the trail runner reached the base having been forced there, it is the lead runner who will be out when tagged for failing to reach his force base.
Either such occurrence is very rare. Thus, after a play, at most three runners may be on the basepaths, one on each base—first, second, and third.
When three runners are on base, this is called bases loaded. Baserunners may attempt to advance, or steal a base , while the pitcher is preparing to make a pitch, while he is making a pitch, or while waiting for a return throw from the catcher after a pitch.
The pitcher, in lieu of delivering the pitch, may try to prevent this by throwing the ball to one of the infielders in order to tag the runner; if successful, it is called a pick-off.
He may also, as part of a planned sequence, throw a pitch well outside and high of the strike zone to his catcher who is waiting for it upright there, and is thus better prepared to throw out a runner trying to steal; this sequence is called a "pitchout.
An illegal attempt by the pitcher to deceive a runner, among other pitching violations, is called a balk , allowing all runners to advance one base without risk of being put out.
Another fundamental tenet of the rules of baseball is that a runner who was initially ruled out can subsequently be ruled safe, but once a runner is ruled safe he cannot be called out on the same play, unless he overruns the base.
For example, if a baserunner steals second base, beating the throw, an umpire might make the quick call of safe, but if the runner then slides beyond the base and is tagged before he can retreat to it the umpire has the right to change the call.
A runner initially called out can be subsequently ruled safe if the fielder putting the runner out drops the ball on either a tag or force play , pulls his foot off the base in the case of a force play , or otherwise illegally obstructs a runner from reaching a base that he otherwise would have reached safely.
Batters attempt to "read" pitchers through pre-game preparation by studying the tendencies of pitchers and by talking to other batters that previously faced the pitcher.
While batting, batters attempt to "read" pitches by looking for clues that the pitcher or catcher reveal.
Batters can attempt to "read" the spin of a ball early in the pitch to anticipate its trajectory. Batters also remain keenly aware of the count during their at bat.
This puts pressure on the pitcher to throw a strike to avoid a walk so the batter is more likely to get an easier pitch to hit and can look for a particular pitch in a particular zone or take a riskier or bigger swing.
This gives the pitcher more freedom to try enticing the batter to swing at a pitch outside the strike zone or throwing a pitch that is harder to control e.